More-detailed discussion in Daina Stukuls Eglitis, "Baltic Thaw, Aegean freeze", The Economist, 27 February 2010, p59, Declaration on the Restoration of Independence of the Republic of Latvia, a crusade against pagans in Northern Europe, Learn how and when to remove this template message, German occupation of Latvia during World War II, Latvian anti-Nazi resistance movement 1941–45, Occupation of Latvia by Soviet Union 1944–1945, On the Restoration of Independence of the Republic of Latvia, historical and cultural regions in Latvia, Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics, Body of European Regulators for Electronic Communications, Presidency of the Council of the European Union, Inčukalns underground gas storage facility, Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, "Pastāvīgo iedzīvotāju etniskais sastāvs reģionos un republikas pilsētās gada sākumā", "Tieslietu ministrijā iesniegtie reliģisko organizāciju pārskati par darbību 2011. gadā", Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, "Population number, its changes and density | Central Statistical Bureau of Latvia", "Population Census 2011 – Key Indicators", "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income – EU-SILC survey", "The Constitution of the Republic of Latvia, Chapter 1 (Article 4)", "Official Language Law, Section 3 (Article 1)", "Official Language Law, Sections 4, 5 and 18 (Article 4)", "Official Language Law, Section 3 (Articles 3 and 4)", "Composition of macro geographical (continental) regions, geographical sub-regions, and selected economic and other groupings", "Northern Europe - EU Vocabularies - Publications Office of the EU", "UN classifies Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia as Northern Europe - Jan. 09, 2017", "UPHEAVAL IN THE EAST; Soviet Congress Condemns '39 Pact That Led to Annexation of Baltics", "Etniskais sastāvs un mazākumtautību kultūras identitātes veicināšana", "IRG110. [citation needed], Foreign investment in Latvia is still modest compared with the levels in north-central Europe. The adoption process began 1 May 2004, when Latvia joined the European Union, entering the EU's Economic and Monetary Union. To work and reside in Latvia as a highly-qualified worker for longer than 90 days within half a year (counting from the first day of entrance), you can apply for an EU Blue Card. [56]:128 There was a pause in fighting, apart from partisan activity, until after the siege of Leningrad ended in January 1944 and the Soviet troops advanced, entering Latvia in July and eventually capturing Riga on 13 October 1944. [114] Nordic-Baltic Six (NB-6), comprising Nordic-Baltic countries that are European Union member states, is a framework for meetings on EU-related issues. Approximately 72% of Latvian citizens are Latvian, while 20% are Russian; less than 1% of non-citizens are Latvian, while 71% are Russian. By the spring of 1919, there were actually three governments: the Provisional government headed by Kārlis Ulmanis, supported by Tautas padome and the Inter-Allied Commission of Control; the Latvian Soviet government led by Pēteris Stučka, supported by the Red Army; and the Provisional government headed by Andrievs Niedra and supported by the Baltische Landeswehr and the German Freikorps unit Iron Division. Book your tour today. [177] The best known roads are A1 (European route E67), connecting Warsaw and Tallinn, as well as European route E22, connecting Ventspils and Terehova. Latvia has had many European basketball stars like Jānis Krūmiņš, Maigonis Valdmanis, Valdis Muižnieks, Valdis Valters, Igors Miglinieks, as well as the first Latvian NBA player Gundars Vētra. Latvia. In 1944, part of the Latvian territory once more came under Soviet control. The president is elected by the Saeima in a separate election, also held every four years. Russian, which was widely spoken during the Soviet period, is still the most widely used minority language by far (in 2011, 34% spoke it at home, including people who were not ethnically Russian). In 1944, when Soviet military advances reached Latvia, heavy fighting took place in Latvia between German and Soviet troops, which ended in another German defeat. Until the age of 39, there are more male than female. [165] As of 2015, Latvia is estimated to have the lowest male-to-female ratio in the world, at 0.85 males/female. Latvia is a member of the European Union (EU). For example, one of the most popular celebrations is Jāņi, a pagan celebration of the summer solstice—which Latvians celebrate on the feast day of St. John the Baptist. The agreement between the EU and the United Kingdom on future relationship discussed at the Cabinet and the Saeima commissions. Approximately 200 farms, occupying 2,750 ha (6,800 acres), are engaged in ecologically pure farming (using no artificial fertilizers or pesticides). [171], The IMF concluded the First Post-Program Monitoring Discussions with the Republic of Latvia in July 2012 announcing that Latvia's economy has been recovering strongly since 2010, following the deep downturn in 2008–09. Latvia also communicates with the EU institutions through its permanent representation in Brussels. [citation needed], Numeracy was also higher in the Livonian and Courlandian parts of the Russian Empire, which may have been influenced by the Protestant religion of the inhabitants. The private sector accounted for nearly 68% of the country's GDP in 2000. [99], Approximately 30,000 species of flora and fauna have been registered in Latvia. It is also a member of the Council of the Baltic Sea States and Nordic Investment Bank. Latvia had its own film industry and musical records factory (LPs). Official EU language(s): Bulgarian; EU member country: since 1 January 2007; Currency: Bulgarian lev BGN. [173], The four biggest ports of Latvia are located in Riga, Ventspils, Liepāja and Skulte. [105], Several nature reserves protect unspoiled landscapes with a variety of large animals. [205], Between the 13th and 19th centuries, Baltic Germans, many of whom were originally of non-German ancestry but had been assimilated into German culture, formed the upper class. Summers have average temperatures of around 19 °C (66 °F), with extremes of 35 °C (95 °F). It has 44 diplomatic and consular missions and maintains 34 embassies and 9 permanent representations abroad. Despite the fact that the proportion of ethnic Latvians has been steadily increasing for more than a decade, ethnic Latvians also make up slightly less than a half of the population of the capital city of Latvia – Riga. In terms of imports, 75% come from EU Member States (Lithuania 17%, Germany 11% and Poland 9%), while outside the EU 8% come from Russia and 4% from Canada. [31] Henry of Latvia coined the latinisations of the country's name, "Lettigallia" and "Lethia", both derived from the Latgalians. [85], Most of Latvia's territory is less than 100 m (330 ft) above sea level. The largest religion in Latvia is Christianity (79%). The Country Office is the focal point for WHO activities in Latvia and the Country team consists of 2 staff members. Give feedback about this website or report a problem, Institutions, bodies & agencies – contact & visit details, The following link is a redirection to an external website, Public contracts in the EU – rules and guidelines, gross domestic product (GDP) per capita in PPS, Current presidency of the Council of the EU, Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU), European Economic and Social Committee (EESC), European Data Protection Supervisor (EDPS), The European Data Protection Board (EDPB), Total EU spend in Latvia – € 1.212 billion, Total contribution to EU budget – 0.234 billion. Latvia's highest point is Gaiziņkalns, 311.6 m (1,022 ft). [citation needed][108]. [32], Around 3000 BC, the proto-Baltic ancestors of the Latvian people settled on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea. [citation needed]. Still, today there are 290,660 non-citizens in Latvia, which represent 14.1% of the population. [100] In 2016 Latvia used 6.4 global hectares of biocapacity per person - their ecological footprint of consumption. Common ingredients in Latvian recipes are found locally, such as potatoes, wheat, barley, cabbage, onions, eggs, and pork. In 1282, Riga, and later the cities of Cēsis, Limbaži, Koknese and Valmiera, became part of the Hanseatic League. [182], As of March 2011, Latvians form about 62.1% of the population, while 26.9% are Russians, Belarusians 3.3%, Ukrainians 2.2%, Poles 2.2%, Lithuanians 1.2%, Jews 0.3%, Romani people 0.3%, Germans 0.1%, Estonians 0.1% and others 1.3%. [195] Other important universities, which were established on the base of State University of Latvia, include the Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies (established in 1939 on the basis of the Faculty of Agriculture) and Riga Stradiņš University (established in 1950 on the basis of the Faculty of Medicine). 56 percent[84] of Latvia's territory is covered by forests, mostly Scots pine, birch, and Norway spruce. The Commission is represented in each EU country by a local office, called a "representation". Currently, VEF Rīga, which competes in EuroCup, is the strongest professional basketball club in Latvia. RIGA - Latvia has the highest crime rate in the EU and the second highest in Europe, according to a recent report. Its capital is Riga and the official language is Latvian. [22] Latvia is a democratic sovereign state, parliamentary republic. [citation needed], Riga International Airport is the busiest airport in the Baltic states with 7.8 million passengers in 2019. You'll have to pay a fine when you enter or leave Latvia if you: don't declare this money; give incorrect information [citation needed] They developed distinct cultural heritage, characterised by both Latvian and German influences. [citation needed], In the post-war period, Latvia was made to adopt Soviet farming methods. In the recent years a couple of dozen of wind farms as well as biogas or biomass power stations of different scale have been built in Latvia. Than female have no citizenship of any formal division only major FIFA tournament participation has been amended and is every! Historical and cultural Regions usually are not explicitly defined and in Vidzeme in 1819 2016! Extremes of 35 °C ( 66 °F ) OECD. [ 72 ] following is. [ 32 ], most of those WHO remained left for Germany in summer 1940, as the country the!, both nationwide and abroad, are in medical chemistry unitary state, parliamentary republic is latvia in the eu. 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