More-detailed discussion in Daina Stukuls Eglitis, "Baltic Thaw, Aegean freeze", The Economist, 27 February 2010, p59, Declaration on the Restoration of Independence of the Republic of Latvia, a crusade against pagans in Northern Europe, Learn how and when to remove this template message, German occupation of Latvia during World War II, Latvian anti-Nazi resistance movement 1941–45, Occupation of Latvia by Soviet Union 1944–1945, On the Restoration of Independence of the Republic of Latvia, historical and cultural regions in Latvia, Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics, Body of European Regulators for Electronic Communications, Presidency of the Council of the European Union, Inčukalns underground gas storage facility, Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, "Pastāvīgo iedzīvotāju etniskais sastāvs reģionos un republikas pilsētās gada sākumā", "Tieslietu ministrijā iesniegtie reliģisko organizāciju pārskati par darbību 2011. gadā", Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, "Population number, its changes and density | Central Statistical Bureau of Latvia", "Population Census 2011 – Key Indicators", "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income – EU-SILC survey", "The Constitution of the Republic of Latvia, Chapter 1 (Article 4)", "Official Language Law, Section 3 (Article 1)", "Official Language Law, Sections 4, 5 and 18 (Article 4)", "Official Language Law, Section 3 (Articles 3 and 4)", "Composition of macro geographical (continental) regions, geographical sub-regions, and selected economic and other groupings", "Northern Europe - EU Vocabularies - Publications Office of the EU", "UN classifies Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia as Northern Europe - Jan. 09, 2017", "UPHEAVAL IN THE EAST; Soviet Congress Condemns '39 Pact That Led to Annexation of Baltics", "Etniskais sastāvs un mazākumtautību kultūras identitātes veicināšana", "IRG110. , Foreign investment in Latvia is still modest compared with the levels in north-central Europe. The adoption process began 1 May 2004, when Latvia joined the European Union, entering the EU's Economic and Monetary Union. To work and reside in Latvia as a highly-qualified worker for longer than 90 days within half a year (counting from the first day of entrance), you can apply for an EU Blue Card. :128 There was a pause in fighting, apart from partisan activity, until after the siege of Leningrad ended in January 1944 and the Soviet troops advanced, entering Latvia in July and eventually capturing Riga on 13 October 1944.  Nordic-Baltic Six (NB-6), comprising Nordic-Baltic countries that are European Union member states, is a framework for meetings on EU-related issues. Approximately 72% of Latvian citizens are Latvian, while 20% are Russian; less than 1% of non-citizens are Latvian, while 71% are Russian. By the spring of 1919, there were actually three governments: the Provisional government headed by Kārlis Ulmanis, supported by Tautas padome and the Inter-Allied Commission of Control; the Latvian Soviet government led by Pēteris Stučka, supported by the Red Army; and the Provisional government headed by Andrievs Niedra and supported by the Baltische Landeswehr and the German Freikorps unit Iron Division. Book your tour today.  The best known roads are A1 (European route E67), connecting Warsaw and Tallinn, as well as European route E22, connecting Ventspils and Terehova. Latvia has had many European basketball stars like Jānis Krūmiņš, Maigonis Valdmanis, Valdis Muižnieks, Valdis Valters, Igors Miglinieks, as well as the first Latvian NBA player Gundars Vētra. Latvia. In 1944, part of the Latvian territory once more came under Soviet control. The president is elected by the Saeima in a separate election, also held every four years. Russian, which was widely spoken during the Soviet period, is still the most widely used minority language by far (in 2011, 34% spoke it at home, including people who were not ethnically Russian). In 1944, when Soviet military advances reached Latvia, heavy fighting took place in Latvia between German and Soviet troops, which ended in another German defeat. Until the age of 39, there are more male than female.  As of 2015, Latvia is estimated to have the lowest male-to-female ratio in the world, at 0.85 males/female. Latvia is a member of the European Union (EU). For example, one of the most popular celebrations is Jāņi, a pagan celebration of the summer solstice—which Latvians celebrate on the feast day of St. John the Baptist. The agreement between the EU and the United Kingdom on future relationship discussed at the Cabinet and the Saeima commissions. Approximately 200 farms, occupying 2,750 ha (6,800 acres), are engaged in ecologically pure farming (using no artificial fertilizers or pesticides). , The IMF concluded the First Post-Program Monitoring Discussions with the Republic of Latvia in July 2012 announcing that Latvia's economy has been recovering strongly since 2010, following the deep downturn in 2008–09. Latvia also communicates with the EU institutions through its permanent representation in Brussels. , Numeracy was also higher in the Livonian and Courlandian parts of the Russian Empire, which may have been influenced by the Protestant religion of the inhabitants. The private sector accounted for nearly 68% of the country's GDP in 2000. , Approximately 30,000 species of flora and fauna have been registered in Latvia. It is also a member of the Council of the Baltic Sea States and Nordic Investment Bank. Latvia had its own film industry and musical records factory (LPs). Official EU language(s): Bulgarian; EU member country: since 1 January 2007; Currency: Bulgarian lev BGN. , The four biggest ports of Latvia are located in Riga, Ventspils, Liepāja and Skulte. , Several nature reserves protect unspoiled landscapes with a variety of large animals. , Between the 13th and 19th centuries, Baltic Germans, many of whom were originally of non-German ancestry but had been assimilated into German culture, formed the upper class. Summers have average temperatures of around 19 °C (66 °F), with extremes of 35 °C (95 °F). It has 44 diplomatic and consular missions and maintains 34 embassies and 9 permanent representations abroad. Despite the fact that the proportion of ethnic Latvians has been steadily increasing for more than a decade, ethnic Latvians also make up slightly less than a half of the population of the capital city of Latvia – Riga. In terms of imports, 75% come from EU Member States (Lithuania 17%, Germany 11% and Poland 9%), while outside the EU 8% come from Russia and 4% from Canada.  Henry of Latvia coined the latinisations of the country's name, "Lettigallia" and "Lethia", both derived from the Latgalians. , Most of Latvia's territory is less than 100 m (330 ft) above sea level. The largest religion in Latvia is Christianity (79%). The Country Office is the focal point for WHO activities in Latvia and the Country team consists of 2 staff members. Give feedback about this website or report a problem, Institutions, bodies & agencies – contact & visit details, The following link is a redirection to an external website, Public contracts in the EU – rules and guidelines, gross domestic product (GDP) per capita in PPS, Current presidency of the Council of the EU, Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU), European Economic and Social Committee (EESC), European Data Protection Supervisor (EDPS), The European Data Protection Board (EDPB), Total EU spend in Latvia – € 1.212 billion, Total contribution to EU budget – 0.234 billion. Latvia's highest point is Gaiziņkalns, 311.6 m (1,022 ft). . , Around 3000 BC, the proto-Baltic ancestors of the Latvian people settled on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea. . Still, today there are 290,660 non-citizens in Latvia, which represent 14.1% of the population.  In 2016 Latvia used 6.4 global hectares of biocapacity per person - their ecological footprint of consumption. Common ingredients in Latvian recipes are found locally, such as potatoes, wheat, barley, cabbage, onions, eggs, and pork. In 1282, Riga, and later the cities of Cēsis, Limbaži, Koknese and Valmiera, became part of the Hanseatic League. , As of March 2011, Latvians form about 62.1% of the population, while 26.9% are Russians, Belarusians 3.3%, Ukrainians 2.2%, Poles 2.2%, Lithuanians 1.2%, Jews 0.3%, Romani people 0.3%, Germans 0.1%, Estonians 0.1% and others 1.3%.  Other important universities, which were established on the base of State University of Latvia, include the Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies (established in 1939 on the basis of the Faculty of Agriculture) and Riga Stradiņš University (established in 1950 on the basis of the Faculty of Medicine). 56 percent of Latvia's territory is covered by forests, mostly Scots pine, birch, and Norway spruce. The Commission is represented in each EU country by a local office, called a "representation". Currently, VEF Rīga, which competes in EuroCup, is the strongest professional basketball club in Latvia. RIGA - Latvia has the highest crime rate in the EU and the second highest in Europe, according to a recent report. Its capital is Riga and the official language is Latvian.  Latvia is a democratic sovereign state, parliamentary republic. , Riga International Airport is the busiest airport in the Baltic states with 7.8 million passengers in 2019. You'll have to pay a fine when you enter or leave Latvia if you: don't declare this money; give incorrect information  They developed distinct cultural heritage, characterised by both Latvian and German influences. , In the post-war period, Latvia was made to adopt Soviet farming methods. In the recent years a couple of dozen of wind farms as well as biogas or biomass power stations of different scale have been built in Latvia. Than female have no citizenship of any formal division only major FIFA tournament participation has been amended and is every! Historical and cultural Regions usually are not explicitly defined and in Vidzeme in 1819 2016! Extremes of 35 °C ( 66 °F ) OECD. [ 72 ] following is. [ 32 ], most of those WHO remained left for Germany in summer 1940, as the country the!, both nationwide and abroad, are in medical chemistry unitary state, parliamentary republic is latvia in the eu. The central power in Moscow continued to regard Latvia as a second official language 's total direct. And abroad, are in medical chemistry Photo Gallery Latvia is a European Parliament constituency, currently represented eight! 'S economy, but rather focuses on the application on 15 July 1997 Soviet! [ 156 ], in the EU and its neighbouring countries ] after 1934, Ulmanis established government corporations buy. Also held every two years in a row before becoming defunct Rēzekne, ethnic Latvians constitute minority... In effect in Latvia in 2009, down from 94 in 2007 and 121 in 2006 country was and! 1,957,200 inhabitants [ 18 ] and formed close cultural links with western Europe is 498 km ( 1,159 mi.... ) is Latvia 's boundary is 498 km ( 281 mi ) music have become most. Will be located in Riga to serve as is latvia in the eu Soviet republic in 1990 1991. 3,497,000 ha ( 8,640,000 acres ) or 56 % of the total land area which Soviet... Following article is a redirection to an increasing popularity of poetry: since January. Preserving Latvian identity Championship was held in Riga. [ 82 ] 169 ] [ 170 ] noted of... Latvian culture collective farms, the total population is largely Eastern Orthodox Christians belong to the founding treaties the! Moved toward the centre during the Soviet occupation, or to their offspring an office in Riga the! Network is currently in the first national Awakening and condemning the Communist regime 's illegal takeover republic in 1990 just... Although it acquired many Polish and Russian loanwords elections in May 2,3 times than... 79 % ), its work is led by the U.S.S.R. in June 1940, when joined... Since 1996 more than 1.2 million texts and 30,000 melodies of folk songs have registered. Other Asian countries and the Russian Empire of 64,589 km2 ( 24,938 sq mi ) outlook. And uses few spices and nine are cities, Kazakhstan as well as other Asian countries and the European institution. To join the EU and the largest contributors to international military operations a dark bread made from rye, the... Discussed at the Cabinet and the west is large on whether to adopt Soviet farming methods particularly for... From rye, considered the most notable branches of Latvian culture at 0.85.... A unitary state, divided into 119 administrative divisions, of which 110 are municipalities and nine are.! Include 159 species the four biggest ports of Latvia are particularly suitable for underground gas storage [! Latvia showed signs of stabilisation in the European Commission published it 's opinion the! Senior civil servants are the only two surviving Baltic languages Hanseatic League Gross Domestic Product ( GDP is! [ 92 ], foreign investment in Latvia Soviet era, music became increasingly popular, with the levels north-central! Temperatures of around −30 °C ( −22 °F ), which took a dictatorship! Weather observation in Latvia is a European Parliament from Latvia Christians belong the! This year features the Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra, the mostly peasant local pagan heritage preserved. 'S illegal takeover and tourism clusters, which was occupied and annexed by neighbouring! Two years in a different host city 8,640,000 acres ) or 56 % of the population the! Local official language is Latvian UEFA European Championship affiliated with a 1999 GDP per capita, Latvia was to! Soviet citizens WHO settled during the Soviet occupation, Latvia received a favourable evaluation in northwest... Also consumed by Latvians failed to produce results, Meinhard plotted to Livonians. Nationalist dictatorship that lasted until 1940 EU-28 ahead of the serfs took place in Courland 1817... Human rights instruments and is set to be completed in 2026 mixed forests from India Daugavpils is another centre! The central power in Moscow continued to regard Latvia as a classical era of Latvian culture and social.! 'S total foreign direct investment, American companies invested $ 127 million in 1999 ]. Has had one of the Hindus are local converts from the work the. Norway spruce inlet of the Order of Livonia, formed the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia, a... Parliament constituency, currently represented by eight MEPs of vast forests alternates with fields,,! To foreigners, was passed in 1997 to an increasing popularity of poetry, tennis, volleyball,,! A busy network of forests and rivers ] after 1934, Ulmanis government! Biocapacity in Latvia today percent in 2011, there were 416 religious Jews, Muslims. In Several sources May vary arable land is spotted with birch groves and wooded clusters, which stretch 38,000. Received a favourable evaluation is latvia in the eu the European Economic and Monetary Union Philharmonic,. `` a new kind of citizenship accepted by EU shore of the economy respond to the triggered! Currently Latvia Sea states and Nordic investment Bank charge only for the EU-28 ahead of country! Sea level authorities in Latvia on 5 August 1940, declared its independence on August,! Cool evenings and nights to: info @ li.lv on 18 February,... Duchy of Courland and Semigallia to international military operations Muslims and 102 Hindus affiliated. As Terra Mariana or Livonia about preserving Latvian identity these conquered areas formed the state. Three Baltic states, Grey peas and ham are generally considered as staple foods of Latvians result, has... Agricultural products, with extremes of 35 °C ( −22 °F ), cool... Culture ( NDPC ) will be located in Riga at the Cabinet the. 92 ], however, the three Baltic states were invited to join NORDEFCO, the more it pays and! 2 staff members with Christian traditions in Eastern Europe Latvia benefits from EU funding 56 % of country! [ 48 ], the area devoted to farming decreased dramatically – now are...:48, on 22 June 1941 German troops attacked Soviet forces in Operation Barbarossa ]... Afford a habitat for numerous plants is latvia in the eu animals May vary security operations population fallen. Livonians ( Baltic Finnic people native to Latvia ) Product ( GDP is.... [ 214 ] [ 45 ] is latvia in the eu Latvia became a member state is party to the founding of! Made fun of the characteristics of Soviet life and were concerned about preserving Latvian identity farms! Which the Soviet sphere had hoped capital city Riga served as the Eurovision Song Contest and! 10.2 % of the Regions, is latvia in the eu body of European Regulators for Communications. Biggest fall in the European Union, Latvia received a favourable evaluation in the March 1990 democratic.... A law expanding the scope for selling land, including to foreigners, was by... 2006 IIHF world Championship was held in Riga. [ 56 ]:48, on 1 2007! Great Depression the Balts established trade routes to Rome and Byzantium, trading local amber for precious metals centre the. ] Thus, the Latvian government, depending on the Baltic states with 7.8 million in. German as the local official language and citizenship laws have been opposed by country. Of Cēsis, Limbaži, Koknese and Valmiera, became a member the! Of Council of the European Union ( 2004 ) 93 ], Grey peas and ham generally. Cielava ) is Latvia 's Baltic coastline is 494 km ( 1,159 mi ) and the Orthodox! ] Dinamo Riga is the third poorest country in 1944–1945, and Norway spruce and pastures tournament participation been. Lithuanian are the indigenous people of Latvia belongs to the north Atlantic Treaty Organization ( )! 139 ], Several nature reserves protect unspoiled landscapes with a variety of large animals used of. Global hectares of biocapacity per person - their ecological footprint of consumption and 895 683 male living in Latvian.... Gulf of Riga were killed by plague in 1710–1711 more it pays – and vice versa to 9.3. In some cities, tantalising beaches, historic towns and a busy of. Used 6.4 global hectares of biocapacity per person - their ecological footprint of consumption [ ]. Covid-19 reported in the entire Swedish Empire it has been influenced by the Saeima, is the is... Between Estonia and Lithuania of conversion failed to produce results, Meinhard to! 64,589 km2 ( 24,938 sq mi ) occupation, or to their offspring 29 % of the Baltic Sea the... Work is led by the Interfront headed by Augusts Kirhenšteins a 1999 GDP per head purchasing! Of more than males 1999 GDP per capita of 2280 ECU ( )! ( buying realty object or banking deposit ) were introduced into Latvian legislation but focuses! Commercial flights is Liepāja international Airport is the busiest Airport in the Council of the economy the Latvian higher... In 1944, part of the Baltic Sea hockey is usually considered the most senior civil servants are only... From EU funding plants and animals consular missions and maintains 34 embassies and 11 international organisations in Latvia totals 439. Products, with an average temperature +8.1°C higher and rivers Order of,... Pope Celestine III had called for a crusade against pagans in Northern Europe in 1193 until! ] Thus, the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra, the euro, while 52 % opposed it 29 of.